Typical of click spam where the fraudster is sending fake clicks via bots using lists of real, historically collected devices, while trying to appear legitimate by using a recent platform version.
Misattribution of installs to clicks with different iOS versions. In this example the clicks are from iPhones running iOS 12.2 while the install devices were on iOS 12.1
Click to Install
IP, Site ID, Sub Partner
Ad Fraud Type
An excessive number of installs have a mismatch of device information to the attributed click
Misattribution. Fraudsters generate millions of fake clicks with a multitude of fingerprints causing the MMP to incorrectly attribute installs from other sources.